Texas Comprehensive Center

Previous Work
October 2005 through September 2012

These resources were published under a previous TXCC funding; therefore, information contained therein may have changed and is not updated.

Briefing Papers

QUESTION:
What are some examples of underachieving schools that have involved parents and community partners to increase student achievement through building a focus on college and career readiness? How do they solicit community response and what contributions have parents/community members made to support a college and career readiness environment? What does the research say about this topic?

Summary
The literature addressing how family and community involvement impacts a culture of college and career readiness suggests there is a positive association for certain types of involvement. Providing support and encouragement, as well as assisting with planning, increases the probability of attending and graduating from college.

Key Points

  • Make efforts to include families in postsecondary planning.
  • Provide information to support postsecondary planning throughout a student's education.
  • Address linguistic and cultural barriers, parental time issues, and other factors across populations that are traditionally underrepresented in institutions of higher education.

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Appendix A

Appendix B

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Parent and Community Involvement in a College/Career–Ready Culture

Introduction

The literature on parent and community involvement is extensive. However, there is little rigorous, experimental research; rather, the literature consists primarily of descriptive case studies or correlation studies, along with numerous studies involving survey data. The same holds true for research around development of career and college readiness. Furthermore, there is very little to be found on the combined topics of parent/community involvement, college/ career readiness, and student achievement.

The information provided in the research portion of this briefing paper reports on experimental findings or literature reviews published since the beginning of 2000. The schools or districts profiled in Appendix A were selected based on the reported success of their program in one of several resources consulted. The source of information is listed with each profile.

Research on the Impact of Parent and Community Involvement in College or Career Readiness

Studies have found that students with involved parents, no matter what their income or background, are more likely to—

  • earn high grades and test scores and enroll in higher-level programs;
  • pass their classes, earn credits, and be promoted;
  • attend school regularly; and
  • graduate and go on to postsecondary education.
    (U.S. Department of Education, 2004, p. 10)

The U.S. Department of Education felt that there is enough evidence about the impact of parental involvement on student achievement to include the above statement in their guidance document. There is, however, limited rigorous research evaluating the impact of parental or community involvement programs beyond elementary school (Agronick, Clark, O'Donnell, & Steuve, 2009; Catsambis, 2001). As is often the case in the field of education, existing literature consists primarily of descriptive or correlational studies rather than robust experimental research.

Research regarding the creation of a school culture that prepares students for college and/or careers often mentions the important role played by family (Bangser, 2008; Bottoms, Young, & Han, 2009; Cunningham, Erisman, & Looney, 2007; Dounay, 2006; Kreider, Caspe, Kennedy, & Weiss, 2007; MacDonald & Dorr, 2006; McDonough, 2004; Rowan-Kenyon, Bell, & Perna, 2008; Wimberly & Noeth, 2004). Community involvement—including postsecondary institutions, community organizations, and local businesses—can also contribute toward helping students transition successfully to college and careers (Bangser, 2008; Bottoms, Young, & Han, 2009; Cunningham et al., 2007; MacDonald & Dorr, 2006; Martinez & Klopott, 2005; Oakes, 2002; Pathways to College Network, 2003). Appendix B provides a list of strategies for family and community involvement mentioned in 12 publications.

Parental Support and Encouragement

Although parental involvement is important through all the years of school, it changes as children develop; therefore, a student in middle or high school benefits from a different type of parental involvement than does an elementary school student (Bouffard & Stephen, 2007; Catsambis, 2001; Hill & Tyson, 2009; Kreider et al., 2007; Patrikakou, 2004). Whereas parental involvement in elementary school may have focused on assisting a child with homework, in middle or high school, the student's greater need might be assistance with determining what courses to take to ensure college or career readiness.

In her background review of research, Catsambis (2001) reported that the most consistent finding in studies of parental involvement was "the importance of parents' educational aspirations for their children" (p. 151). This, she said, held true for both primary and secondary education. Other researchers have reached similar conclusions (Cunningham et al., 2007; Hill & Tyson, 2009; Patrikakou, 2004; Wimberly & Noeth, 2004). Rowan-Kenyon and her colleagues (2009) collected survey data in case studies of 15 high schools in five states; for each state, three high schools selected from a single district represented low-, middle- and high-socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Based on their data, they concluded that "parents support and encourage college opportunity through their expectations for their children's educational and occupational attainment, discussions with their children about college-related activities, efforts to take their children to visit colleges, and ability and willingness to pay college prices" (p. 571). Hill and Tyson referred to this as "academic socialization" and emphasized its importance in middle school. They provided a similar list of activities by parents as part of academic socialization:

  • Communicating expectations for achievement and value for education
  • Fostering educational and occupational aspirations
  • Discussing learning strategies
  • Preparing and planning for the future

Several studies indicate that the importance of parental support and encouragement is consistent across populations who are traditionally underrepresented in institutions of higher education (low-income students, Hispanic and African American students, students with disabilities, and recent immigrants), as well as those who constitute the majority of college-going students (Cabrera & La Nasa, 2001; Ceballo, 2004; Hill & Tyson, 2009; McDonough, 2004; Wimberly & Noeth, 2004). Ceballo interviewed Yale undergraduates who were first-generation students from low-income Puerto Rican or Mexican American families. She found that although most of the parents were unaware of educational goals or requirements, "they supported any attempts made by their children in educational settings" (p. 177).

Postsecondary Planning

At least eight studies mention a second type of parental involvement that serves as a predictor for successful transition to college or a career: postsecondary planning—the earlier, the better (Bangser, 2008; Cunningham et al., 2007; Dounay, 2006; Hill & Tyson, 2009; Jehl, 2007a; McDonough, 2004; Wimberly & Noeth, 2004; Wimberly & Noeth, 2005). This covers numerous activities that require knowledge in multiple areas. Parents need to know about college admission or career requirements so they can help their child choose appropriate courses and activities that will enable him/her to meet these requirements. Also, they must be aware of and understand student assessments that will allow them to track progress toward meeting the requirements. "At every point during their high school careers, students (and their parents) should know exactly where they are on the path to completing the coursework and mastering the competencies they will need to be ready for college and careers" (Achieve and Education Trust, 2008, p. 34).

Many parents need to know what financial aid is available for college or training expenses and how to receive it. Finally, they must understand the application process, including required testing, various deadlines, and what must be included on application forms. For parents who attended college—or other postsecondary training—themselves, acquiring this information may pose no challenge; but for those who have never been to college and have no such experience among their extended families or social networks, it may be a daunting task (Cabrera & La Nasa, 2001; Dounay, 2006; McDonough, 2004; Rowan-Kenyon et al., 2008).

Bangser's (2008) literature review for the National High School Center mentions several preparatory programs that can help students and their families with the necessary planning to ensure college and/or career readiness: Upward Bound, Talent Search, GEAR UP, AVID, Project GRAD, and Career Beginnings. Some of these programs begin working with students in middle school, or even before that: GEAR UP begins no later than grade 7 and extends through high school; AVID works with grades 4 through 12. Wimberly and Noeth (2005) recommend that schools begin providing education and postsecondary planning information to students as early as grade 6 to begin developing educational and professional goals. Turnaround Schools (n.d.) supports the No Excuses University Network, which consists of elementary, middle, and junior high schools across the nation. These schools promote college readiness beginning in elementary school. Hill and Tyson (2009) conducted a meta-analysis of literature about parent involvement in middle school and concluded that it was positively related to student achievement.

Cultural and Socioeconomic Factors

Parental involvement varies with cultural and socioeconomic factors (Auerbach, 2004; Bangser, 2008; Cabrera & La Nasa, 2001; McDonough, 2004; Rowan-Kenyon et al., 2008; Tierney, Bailey, Constantine, Finkelstein, & Hurd, 2009; Wimberley & Noeth, 2005). Much of the college-readiness literature focuses on Hispanic or African American, low-income, or immigrant students, and a common theme is the importance of parental involvement. In her literature review for The Education Commission of the States, Dounay (2006, p. 2) refers to a finding noted in Martinez and Klopott's (2005) background literature review, stating that "academic preparation, access to information, and parental involvement and knowledge about college are the strongest predictors of college entrance and completion, especially for disadvantaged students."

However, for a variety of reasons, low-income and minority families often have limited involvement with their children's education (Auerbach, 2004; Pathways to College Network, 2003; Rowan-Kenyon et al., 2008). Rowan-Kenyon and her colleagues stated that their case studies on socioeconomic factors suggested "low levels of parental involvement are not so much attributable to shortcomings of the parents themselves as they are to structures and policies" (p. 581). They listed barriers that created "invisible walls" and inhibited interaction with schools—inflexible work schedules, language barriers, lack of comfort with school staff (they "do not believe that the school wants them to be involved," p. 567), and "conditioned mistrust." In their study, they concluded that "because low-income students and their families are not 'active consumers' in the educational process" schools must actively reach out to these families to encourage involvement (p. 568).

Although, as discussed earlier, parental encouragement and support is commonplace throughout most cultural and socioeconomic populations, assisting their child with postsecondary planning is often difficult for some. Language barriers may limit access to needed information (Auerbach, 2004; Clark & Dorris, 2006; Rowan-Kenyon et al., 2008; Pathways to College Network, 2003). In addition, low-income and minority parents often have fewer sources of information regarding options available for their child after high school (Cabrera & La Nasa, 2001; Cunningham et al., 2007; Pathways to College Network, 2003; Rowan-Kenyon et al., 2008; Wimberly & Noeth, 2004). The Pathways to College Network suggests several actions for superintendents and principals to aid parents in planning:

  • Obtain input from families regarding information and resources they need to support their children's college aspirations
  • Familiarize families with services that provide academic support and college planning and provide these services in a family-friendly environment
  • Ensure that families from all cultural, social, linguistic, and community backgrounds are included in outreach efforts
  • Partner with institutions of higher education to provide college planning and financial aid information

For low-income families, information on financial aid is extremely important, and they need the information early in their child's education so they can build and reinforce his or her aspirations to attend college (McDonough, 2004; Wimberly & Noeth, 2005). McDonough recommends that institutions of higher education partner with school counselors who are routinely called upon to answer student and parent concerns about college affordability. Wimberly and Noeth (2004) recommend providing information on financial aid to parents of middle school children, including a thorough overview of college expenses, both fixed and variable; workshops to assist in completing financial aid forms; explanations by local banks of how the student loan process works; and listings of deadlines for scholarship and other aid applications.

Cunningham et al. (2007) suggest that financial institutions support financial literacy campaigns that reach diverse audiences and provide local schools with easy-to-read materials explaining how and why to save for college and what specific financial aid programs are available. According to Rowan-Kenyon et al. (2008), Florida and Georgia have substantial state-level scholarship programs and parents at high schools they surveyed "know not only about the existence of these programs but also about the criteria for obtaining these funds" (p. 578). Their study suggests that awareness of these programs helps encourage parents to initiate discussions with their children about college attendance.

Summary

In summary, the literature reviewed on parent and community involvement in preparing students for college and/or careers indicates that both parents and community members can have a positive impact on student success. There are two types of parental involvement that are important indicators of college attendance and completion—postsecondary planning and parental support and encouragement. These indicators apply across cultural and socioeconomic boundaries, but parents often need assistance with their endeavors due to inadequate information and other barriers.

Resources and Appendixes

Profiles of Reported Successful Programs

Appendix A contains a sample of schools and programs that reported successful efforts to involve family and community in establishing or enhancing a college- and career-ready culture. The source of information for each initiative is listed; however, the Texas Comprehensive Center has not established any evidence to support these initiatives.

The following are included:

  • Citizen Schools, in Bedichek Middle School, Austin, Texas
  • Community Links High School, in Chicago, Illinois
  • Engaging Latino Communities for Education (ENLACE), a statewide collaborative in New Mexico
  • Futures & Families Program, in Los Angeles, California
  • Giano Intermediate School, in West Covina, California
  • Harlem Children's Zone, in Harlem, New York City, New York
  • High School Puente, a statewide program in California
  • Indiana Parent Information and Resource Center (PIRC), in partnership with the Indianapolis Public Schools (IPS), Indianapolis, Indiana
  • Oyler Community Learning Center, in Cincinnati, Ohio
  • University Park Campus School, in Worcester, Massachusetts

Researchers recommend a variety of strategies for involving parents and community members in preparing students for success after high school. Appendix B is a chart that lists some of those recommendations. The studies included were either published reports of research or literature reviews; they examined family or community involvement as a factor in career or college readiness.

In addition, the following publications contain numerous recommendations concerning parental involvement at the secondary level and may be consulted for additional information:

Agronick, G., Clark, A., O'Donnell, L, & Steuve, A. (2009, April). Parent involvement strategies in urban middle and high schools in Northeast and Islands Region (Issues & Answers, REL 2009-No. 069). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast and Islands. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ ncee/edlabs/projects/project.asp?ProjectID=117

Kreider, H., Caspe, M., Kennedy, S., & Weiss, H. (2007). Family involvement in middle and high school students' education (Family Involvement Makes a Difference, No. 3). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project. Retrieved from http://www.hfrp.org/content/download/1340/48835/file/fi_adolescent.pdf

Pathways to College Network. (2003). A shared agenda. A leadership challenge to improve college access and success. Boston, MA: Pathways to College Network, The Education Resources Institute. Retrieved from http://www.pathwaystocollege.net/pdf/sharedagenda_fullreport.pdf

Tierney, W. G., Bailey, T., Constantine, J., Finkelstein, N., & Hurd, N. F. (2009). Helping students navigate the path to college: What high schools can do (NCEE 2009-4066). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/practiceguides/higher_ed_pg_091509.pdf


The following publications contain tools that may be useful for parent and community involvement efforts:

Allen, L., & Murphy, L. (2008). Leveraging postsecondary partners to build a college-going culture: Tools for high school-postsecondary partnerships. Boston, MA: Jobs for the Future. Retrieved from http://www.jff.org/publications/education/leveraging-postsecondary-partners-build-/342

Double the Numbers. (2009). College awareness month: Resource and activity book. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.doublethenumbersdc.org/college-awareness-month/resources

The Education Trust. (2009a). A guide for African American parents: How to help your child prepare for college and career. Washington, DC: Author. Available from http://www.edtrust.org/dc/resources/publications/all/for-parents

The Education Trust. (2009b). A guide for Hispanic parents: How to help your child prepare for college and career. Washington, DC: Author. Available from http://www.edtrust.org/dc/resources/publications/all/for-parents

Iowa Statewide Parent Information Resource Center. (2006). Involving parents: Best practices in the middle and high schools. Retrieved from http://www.iowaparents.org/learning-at-home/middle-high-schools

MacDonald, M. F., & Dorr, A. (2006). Creating a college going culture: A resource guide. Retrieved from http://apep-bestla.gseis.ucla.edu/BEST-CreateCollegeCultResourceGuide.pdf

Southern Regional Education Board. (2007, November). Guiding students to meet challenging academic and career goals: Involving school mentors, parents, and community leaders. HSTW Best Practices Newsletter. Atlanta, GA: Author. Available from http://www.sreb.org/page/1252/publications.html


The American Youth Policy Forum reviewed studies that evaluated 23 programs across the U.S. that support college and career readiness, including AVID, Communities in Schools, dual enrollment, early college high schools, GEAR UP, Talent Development High Schools, Project GRAD, and others. Many of these programs contain a family- or community-involvement component:

Hooker, S., & Brand, B. (2009). Success at every step: How 23 programs support youth on the path to college and beyond. Washington, DC: American Youth Policy Forum. Retrieved from http://www.aypf.org/publications/SuccessAtEveryStep.htm


Finally, a publication from the National High School Center provides a section on successful postsecondary transition for students with disabilities that includes family and community involvement:

Bangser, M. (2008). Preparing high school students for successful transitions to postsecondary education and employment. Washington, DC: MDRC and the National High School Center.

References and Additional Resources

Listed below are references used in preparing this paper and additional resources that can be consulted for more information on this topic.

Achieve, Inc. & The Education Trust. (2008, November). Measures that matter—Making college and career readiness the mission for America's high schools: A guide for state policymakers. Washington, DC: Authors. Retrieved from http://www.achieve.org/files/ MakingCollegeandCareerReadinesstheMissionforHighSchool.pdf

Agronick, G., Clark, A., O'Donnell, L, & Steuve, A. (2009, April). Parent involvement strategies in urban middle and high schools in Northeast and Islands Region (Issues & Answers, REL 2009-No. 069). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast and Islands. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ ncee/edlabs/projects/project.asp?ProjectID=117

Allen, L., & Murphy, L. (2008). Leveraging postsecondary partners to build a college-going culture: Tools for high school-postsecondary partnerships. Boston, MA: Jobs for the Future. Retrieved from http://www.jff.org/publications/education/leveraging-postsecondary-partners-build-/342

Auerbach, S. (2004). Engaging Latino parents in supporting college pathways: Lessons from a college access program. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 3(2), 125-145.

Axelroth, R. (2009, August). The community schools approach: Raising graduation and college going rates—Community high school case studies. Washington, DC: Coalition for Community Schools, Institute for Educational Leadership. Retrieved from http://www.pffac.org/file.php/389/Comm_schoolHS.pdf

Bangser, M. (2008). Preparing high school students for successful transitions to postsecondary education and employment. Washington, DC: MDRC and the National High School Center. Available from http://www.mdrc.org/publications/489/abstract.html

Bottoms, G., Young, M., & Han, L. (2009). Ready for tomorrow: Six proven ideas to graduate and prepare more students for college and 21st-century careers. Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board. Retrieved from http://publications.sreb.org/2009/09V20_Ready_for_Tomorrow.pdf. Available from http://www.sreb.org/page/1252/publications.html

Bouffard, S. M., & Stephen, N. (2007, November). Promoting family involvement. Principal's Research Review, 2(6), 1-8.

Cabrera, A. F., & La Nasa, S. M. (2001). On the path to college: Three critical tasks facing America's disadvantaged. Research in Higher Education, 42(2), 119-149.

Catsambis, S. (2001). Expanding knowledge of parental involvement in children's secondary education: Connections with high school seniors' academic success. Social Psychology of Education, 5(2), 149-177.

Ceballo, R. (2004). From barrios to Yale: The role of parenting strategies in Latino families. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 26(2), 171-186.

Clark, A. A., & Dorris, A. (2006, November). Welcoming Latino parents as partners. Principal Leadership, 7(3), 22-25. Retrieved from http://www.principals.org/Portals/0/Content/54433.pdf

Conley, D. T. (2009). Creating college readiness: Profiles of 38 schools that know how. Eugene, OR: Educational Policy Improvement Center. Available at http://www.epiconline.org/publications/college_readiness

Corwin, Z. B., & Tierney, W. G. (2007). Getting there—and beyond: Building a culture of college-going in high schools. Los Angeles: Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis, Rossier School of Education, University of Southern California. Retrieved from http://www.usc.edu/dept/chepa/ working/Getting%20There%20FINAL.pdf

Cunningham, A. F., Erisman, W., & Looney, S. M. (2007). From aspirations to action: The role of middle school parents in making the dream of college a reality. Washington, DC: Institute for Higher Education Policy. Retrieved from http://www.ihep.org/Publications/publications-detail.cfm?id=92

Double the Numbers. (2009). College awareness month: Resource and activity book. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.doublethenumbersdc.org/college-awareness-month/resources

Dounay, J. (2006). Involving families in high school and college expectations. Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States. Retrieved from http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/70/37/7037.pdf

The Education Trust. (2009a). A guide for African American parents: How to help your child prepare for college and career. Washington, DC: Author. Available from http://www.edtrust.org/dc/resources/publications/all/for-parents

The Education Trust. (2009b). A guide for Hispanic parents: How to help your child prepare for college and career. Washington, DC: Author. Available from http://www.edtrust.org/dc/resources/publications/all/for-parents

Epstein, J. L. (2007). Connections count: Improving family and community involvement in secondary schools. Principal Leadership, 8(2), 16-22.

Epstein, J., et al. (2009). School, family, and community partnerships: Your handbook for action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Gandara, P. (2002). A study of High School Puente: What we have learned about preparing Latino youth for postsecondary education. Education Policy, 16(4), 474-495.

Hill, N. E., & Tyson, D. F. (2009). Parental involvement in middle school: A meta-analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Developmental Psychology, 45(3), 740-763.

Hooker, S., & Brand, B. (2009). Success at every step: How 23 programs support youth on the path to college and beyond. Washington, DC: American Youth Policy Forum. Retrieved from http://www.aypf.org/publications/SuccessAtEveryStep.htm

Iowa Statewide Parent Information Resource Center. (2006). Involving parents: Best practices in the middle and high schools. Retrieved from http://www.iowaparents.org/learning-at-home/middle-high-schools

Jehl, J. (2007a). Connecting schools, families, and communities: Stories and results from the Annie E. Casey Foundation's education investments. Baltimore, MD: Annie E. Casey Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.aecf.org/upload/PublicationFiles/ED3622H5045.pdf

Jehl, J. (2007b). The connection strategy: Preparing young people to succeed in college and beyond. Baltimore, MD: Annie E. Casey Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.aecf.org/~/media/PublicationFiles/Connection_Strategy.pdf

Kreider, H., Caspe, M., Kennedy, S., & Weiss, H. (2007). Family involvement in middle and high school students' education (Family Involvement Makes a Difference, No. 3). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project. Retrieved from http://www.hfrp.org/content/download/1340/48835/file/fi_adolescent.pdf

MacDonald, M. F., & Dorr, A. (2006). Creating a college going culture: A resource guide. Retrieved from http://apep-bestla.gseis.ucla.edu/BEST-CreateCollegeCultResourceGuide.pdf

Martinez, M., & Klopott, S. (2005). How is school reform tied to increasing college access and success for low income and minority youth? Washington, DC: Pathways to College Network. Retrieved from http://www.pathwaystocollege.net/pdf/HowisSchoolReform.pdf

McDonough, P. (2004). The school-to-college transition: Challenges and prospects. Washington, DC: American Council on Education. Retrieved from http://www.acenet.edu/bookstore/pdf/2004_IPtransitions.pdf

National Parent Teacher Association. (2004). National standards for parent/family involvement programs. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.

Oakes, J. (2002). Critical conditions for equity and diversity in college access: Informing policy and monitoring results. Los Angeles: UC/ACCORD. Retrieved from http://ucaccord.gseis.ucla.edu/research/indicators/pdfs/criticalconditions.pdf

Pathways to College Network. (2003). A shared agenda. A leadership challenge to improve college access and success. Boston, MA: Pathways to College Network, The Education Resources Institute. Retrieved from http://www.pathwaystocollege.net/pdf/sharedagenda_fullreport.pdf

Pathways to College Network. (2004). Action alert for community leaders and family advocacy groups. Boston, MA: Pathways to College Network, The Education Resources Institute. Retrieved from http://www.pathwaystocollege.net/uploadedFiles/Pathways_To_College_Network/About_Us/Pathways_Publications/CommunityAction.pdf

Patrikakou, E. (2004, September). Adolescence: Are parents relevant to students' high school achievement and post-secondary attainment? (Family Involvement Research Digest). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project. Retrieved from http://www.hfrp.org/publications-resources/browse-our-publications/adolescence-are-parents-relevant-to-students-high-school-achievement-and-post-secondary-attainment.

Perna, L. W., & Titus, M. A. (2005). The relationship between parental involvement as social capital and college enrollment: An examination of racial/ethnic group differences. Journal of Higher Education, 76(5), 485-518.

Ramsey, J. (2008). Creating a high school culture of college-going: The case of Washington State Achievers. Washington, DC: Institute for Higher Education Policy. Retrieved from http://www.ihep.org/assets/files/publications/a-f/Creating_a_high_school_culture_of_college_going.pdf

Rowan-Kenyon, H. T., Bell, A. D., & Perna, L. W. (2008). Contextural influences on parental involvement in college going: Variations by socioeconomic class. Journal of Higher Education, 79(5), 564-586.

Simon, B. S. (2001). Family involvement in high school: Predictors and effects. NASSP Bulletin, 85(627), 8-19.

Southern Regional Education Board. (2007, November). Guiding students to meet challenging academic and career goals: Involving school mentors, parents, and community leaders. HSTW Best Practices Newsletter. Atlanta, GA: Author. Available from http://www.sreb.org/page/1252/publications.html

Tierney, W. G. (2002). Parents and families in precollege preparation: The lack of connection between research and practice. Education Policy, 16(4), 588-606.

Tierney, W. G., Bailey, T., Constantine, J., Finkelstein, N., & Hurd, N. F. (2009). Helping students navigate the path to college: What high schools can do (NCEE 2009-4066). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/practiceguides/higher_ed_pg_091509.pdf

Turnaround Schools. (n.d.) The no excuses university network. Available at http://turnaroundschools.com/neu-network/

U.S. Department of Education. (2004). Parental involvement: Title I, Part A. Non-regulatory guidance. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/programs/titleiparta/parentinvguid.doc

Wimberly, G. L., & Noeth, R. J. (2004). Schools involving parents in early postsecondary planning. Iowa City, IA: ACT. Retrieved from http://www.act.org/research/policymakers/pdf/involve_parents.pdf

Wimberly, G., & Noeth, R. (2005). College readiness begins in middle school. Iowa City, IA: ACT. Retrieved from http://www.act.org/research/policymakers/pdf/CollegeReadiness.pdf

 

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